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The universal practice of carrying arms in the South is undoubtedly the cause of occasional loss of life, and is much to be regretted. On the other hand, this custom renders altercations and quarrels of very rare occurrence, for people are naturally careful what they say when a bullet may be the probable result… LtC Sir Arthur James Lyon Fremantle, HM Coldstream Guards, 24 May 1863

This is an interesting book – more so for what it isn’t than what it is – it is not two objective accounts of the Battle of Gettysburg. Whitelaw Reid was a journalist who never served a day in a militia let alone an army but who sought to cover himself with the flag for political gain by authoring Ohio in the War Her Statesmen Generals and Soldiers in 1895. He wound up as the vice presidential candidate on the republican ticket that lost to Grover Cleveland in 1892 and served out his days as an ambassador to France and England.

Arthur James Lyon Fremantle had the distinction of being a carpet soldier of Queen Victoria’s army who was probably sent to review the situation in the Confederacy both to assure a steady supply of cotton for English mills and to evaluate whether or not the English should lean a little further to the Confederate or union side. Based on what actually happened he must have selected the union which speaks volumes about his reciprocation of hospitality received in the South.

As contemporary – if not accurate reports – these two accounts have novelty value if little else and while we wouldn’t use anything Whitelaw Reid wrote to wrap dead fish in Fremantle’s extended work, Three Months in the Southern States, is worth a further look.

Two witnesses at Gettysburg : the personal accounts of Whitelaw Reid and A. J. L. Fremantle    New York, Brandywine Press, 1994 [edited by] Gary W. Gallagher Gettysburg, Battle of, Gettysburg, Pa., 1863 Personal narratives Book. The Gettysburg Campaign : a contemporary account by Whitelaw Reid  The Gettysburg Campaign : from the diary of A.J.L. Fremantle  Appendix: The structure of the armies. Includes bibliographical references and index. Clean, tight and strong binding. No highlighting, underlining or marginalia in text. VG  

July 14, 1880 This relatively early Puck image (left) provides a microcosm of public sentiment about civil and voting rights in the South, as reflected by Keppler through Opper’s illustration in a country still recovering from the effects of the Civil War, and which, at the time, was in the midst of a presidential election campaign between two former Union generals. Whitelaw Reid, editor of the Republican New York Tribune, is pictured by Opper with his inventory of ‘Outrage,’ which includes a line of bloody shirts, lynchings, and Jim Crow voter exclusions, enforced by Klu Klux Klan violence. Caption: The Bankrupt Outrage Mill. Whitelaw:–“It’s no use trying to please the public. My stock of outrages is complete — but they won’t take!”
The accompanying editorial states: “An Off-Year for Outrages — We are sorry to report the Outrage Business as painfully dull. There is a large stock on hand, and no demand. Gore is a drug in the market. Something must be done about this, if it is only for the honor of the nation. A Presidential Campaign without blood shows a shocking decline in political enthusiasm…”

British Army General. Born the son of Major General John W. Fremantle, he entered the British army in 1852. By 1860, he was a Captain in the Coldstream Guards and a Lieutenant Colonel in the army. That same year he was assigned as the military secretary at Gibraltar, a post he would hold until 1862. In April of 1863, after hearing stories of the Confederate States of America and the Civil War, Fremantle arrived in America, where would spend three months with the Confederate Army as an observer before leaving in July of 1863. After returning home he published a book about his trip, “Three Months in the Southern States.” In 1882, he was promoted to Major-General and from 1884 to 1885 was the Governor of North Eastern Sudan in Egypt. In 1894, Fremantle was appointed as the Governor of Malta until 1899. Also in 1894, he would be knighted for the first of two times. Fremantle passed away in London in 1901.


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